DESUGGESTOPEDIA METHOD

INTRODUCTION

 

Teacher should be creative in using different kinds of teaching method. They have to choose an appropriate method to transfer the knowledge, because they will find different situation and different students in the class. Generally, students would not be able to believe that they could be successful in learning language. This lack of motivation has made students do not have confidence to speak in the target language, because they do not want to make mistakes. Moreover, they find difficulties to recall the previous lesson, such as memorizing the new vocabularies. This situation encourages teacher to be creative and use an effective method on teaching. According to Lozanov and others, we may be using only five to ten percent of our mental capacity. In order to make better use of our reserved capacity, the limitations we think we have need to be ‘desuggested’. Desuggestopedia, the application of the study of suggestion to pedagogy, has been developed to help students eliminate the feeling that they cannot be successful or the negative association they may have toward studying and, thus, to help them to overcome the barriers to learn. One of the ways the students´ mental reserves are stimulated is through integration of the fine arts.Lozanov states that communication takes place on “two planes”: on one the linguistic message is encoded; and on the other are factors which influence the linguistic message. On the conscious plane, the learner attends to the language; on the subconscious plane, the fine arts (it could be classical music) suggests that learning is easy and pleasant. When there is a unity between conscious and subconscious, learning is enhanced.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE PRINCIPLES OF DESUGGESTOPEDIA

 

                        Observations

                             Principles

1. The classroom is bright and cheerful.

Learning is facilitated in a cheerful environment.

2.Among the posters hanging around                      

the room are several containing

Grammatical information.

 

 

Students can learn from what is present in the environment, even if their attention is not directed to it (‘Peripherallearning’).

 

3. The teacher speaks confidently.

If students trust and respect the teacher`s authority, they will accept and retain information better.

4. The teacher gives the students the impression that learning the target language will be easy and enjoyable.

The teacher should recognize that learners bring certain psychological barriers with them to the learning situation. She should attempt to ‘desuggest’ these.

5. The students choose new name and identities.

Assuming a new identity enhances students` feeling of security and allows them to be more open. They feel less inhibited since their performance is really that of a different person.

6. The students introduce themselves to the teacher.

The dialog that the students learn contains language they can use immediately.

7. They play rhythmic instruments as they sing a song.

Songs are useful for ‘freeing the speech muscles’ and evoking positive emotions.

8. The teacher distributes a lengthy handout to the class. The title of the dialog is ‘To want to is be able’.

The teacher should integrate indirect positive suggestions (`there is no limit to what you can do`) into the learning situation.

9. The teacher briefly mentions a few points about English grammar and vocabulary. These are in bold print in the dialog.

The teacher should present and explain the grammar and vocabulary, but not dwell on them. The bold print allows the whole text to the details before they return to the whole text again. The dynamic interplay between the whole and the parts is important.

10. There are reproductions of classical paintings throughout the text.

Fine art provides positive suggestions for students.

11. In the left column is the dialog in the target language and in the right column is the native language translation.

One way that meaning is made clear in native language translation.

12. The teacher reads the dialog with a musical accompaniment. She matches her voice to the rhythm and intonation of the music.

Communication takes place on ‘two planes’: on one the linguistic message is encoded; and on the other are factors which influence the linguistic message. On the conscious plane, the learner attends to the language; the music suggests that learning is easy and pleasant. When there is a unity between conscious an subconscious, learning is enhanced.

13. The teacher reads the script a second time as the students listen. This is done to different music.

A calm state, such as one experience when listening to a concert. Is ideal for overcoming psychological barriers and for taking advantage of learning potential.

14. For homework, the students are read to the dialog at night and in the morning.

At these times, the distinction between the conscious and subconscious is most blurred, therefore, learning can occur.

15. The teacher gives the students hats to wear for the different characters in the dialog. The students take turns reading portions of the dialog.

Dramatization is a particularly valuable way of playfully activating the material. Fantasy reduces barriers to learn.

16. The teacher tells the students that they are auditioning for a play.

The fine arts (music, art and drama) enable suggestions to reach the subconscious. The arts should integrate as much as possible into the teaching process.

17. The teacher leads the class in various activities involving the dialog. For example, question and answer, repetition and translation.

The teacher should help the students `activate the material to which they are been exposed. The means of doing this should be varied so as to avoid repetition as much as possible. Novelty aids acquisition.

18. She teaches the students a children`s song.

Music and movement reinforce the linguistic material. It is desirable that students achieve a state of ‘infantilization’ so that they will be more open to learn. If they trust the teacher, they will reach this state more easily.

19. The teacher and students play a question and answer game.

In an atmosphere in play, the conscious attention of the learner does don focus on linguistic forms, but rather on using the language.

20. The student makes an error by saying, ‘How you do?’. The teacher corrects the error in a soft voice.

Errors are corrected gently, not in direct confrontational manner.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REVIEWING THE PRINCIPLES

 

  1. What are the goals of teachers who use Desuggestopedia?

Teachers hope to accelerate by process to the students by using a foreign language for everyday communication. The students` mental power must be tapped by desuggesting the psychological barriers learners bring with them to the learning situation and using techniques to activate the ‘paraconscious’ part of mind, just below the fully conscious mind.

  1. What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the students?

The teacher is the authority in the classroom. In order for the method to be successful, the students must trust and respect their teacher.

Once the students trust the teacher, they can feel more secure. If they feel secure, they can be more spontaneous and less inhibited.

  1. What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?

The posters are change every few weeks to create a sense of novelty in the environment. Students select target language names and choose new occupations. During the course they create whole biographies to go along with their new identities.

  1. What is the nature of student-teacher interaction? What is the nature of student-student interaction?

The teacher initiates interactions with the whole group of students with individual’s right from the beginning of a language course. Initially, the students can only respond nonverbally or with a few target language words they have practiced. Later the students have more control of the target language and can respond more appropriately and even initiate interaction themselves.

  1. How are the feelings of the students dealt with?

A great deal of attention is given to the students` feeling in this method. One of the fundamental principles of the method is hat if the students are relaxed and confident, they will not need to try hard to learn the target language. It will come naturally and easily.

The important thing in this method is the psychological barriers that students bring with them be desuggested. Indirect positive suggestions are made to enhance students` self confidence and to convince them that success is obtainable.

  1. How is language viewed? How is culture viewed?

Language is the first of two planes in the two planes of communication. In the second plane are the factors which influence the linguistic message.

The culture which students learn concerns the everyday life of people who speak the language. The use of fine arts is also important in Desuggestopedic classes.

  1. What areas of language are emphasized? What language skills are emphasized?

Vocabulary is emphasized. Claims about the success of the method often focus in a large number of words that can be acquired. Grammar is dealt with explicitly, but minimally. In fact, it is believed that students will learn best if their conscious attention is focused not on the language forms, but on using the language. The ‘paraconscious’ mind will absorb the linguistic rules.

Speaking communicatively is emphasized. Students also read in the target language (for example, dialogs) and write (for example, imaginative compositions).

  1. What is the role of the students` native language?

Native language translation is used to make the meaning of the dialog clear. The teacher also uses the naïve language n the class when necessary. As the course proceeds, the teacher uses the native language less and less.

  1. How is evaluation accomplished?

Evaluation usually is conducted on students` normal in class performance and not through formal tests, which would threaten the relaxed atmosphere considered essential for accelerated learning

  1.  How does the teacher respond to the student errors?

Errors are corrected gently, the teacher using a soft voice.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE TECHNIQUES OF DESUGGESTOPEDIA

 

In Desuggestopedia, there are some techniques that we can use in the classroom:

Classroom set-up

The challenge of the teacher is to create a classroom environment which is bright and cheerful. This was accomplished in the classroom we visited where the walls were decorated with scenes from a country where the target language is spoken. These conditions are not always possible. However, the teacher should try to provide as positive an environment as possible.

 

Peripheral learning

The students learn English not only from direct instruction but also from indirect instruction. It is encouraged through the presence in the learning environment of posters and decoration featuring the target language and various grammatical information. They are changed from time to time. By doing this, the students can learn many things indirectly in the classroom or outside classroom. The teacher may or may not call attention to the posters. For example, students can produce simple sentence by using the posters or grammatical information on the wall.

 

Positive suggestion

It is the teacher`s responsibility to orchestrate the suggestive factors in a learning situation, by helping students break down the barriers to learning that they bring with them. Teacher can do this through direct and indirect means. Direct suggestion appeals to the students` consciousness by telling the students that they are going to be successful. But indirect suggestion appeals to the students` subconscious, is actually the more powerful of the two. It was achieved through the dialogue, “Be self-confident”.

 

Choose a new identity

The students choose a target language name and a new occupation. As the course continuous, the students have an opportunity to develop a whole biography about their fictional selves.

 

Role play

Students are asked to present temporarily that they are someone else and to perform in the target language as if they were that person. They are often asked to create their own lines relevant to the situation.

 

First concert (active concert)

The two concerts are components of the receptive phase of the lesson. In the first concert, the teacher reads the dialog in the target language. Music is played. After a few minutes, the teacher begins a slow, dramatic reading and synchronized in intonation with the music.

 

Second concert (passive concert)

In the second phase, the students are asked to put their script aside. They simply listen as the teacher reads the dialog at the normal rate of speed. The teacher is seated and reads with musical accompaniment. The content governs the way the teacher reads the script, not the music.

 

Primary activation

This technique follows components of the active phase of the lesson. Students playfully reread the target language dialog out loud, as individuals or in group. In the lesson we observed, three groups of students read parts of the dialog in a particular manner: the first group, sadly; the next, angrily; the last, cheerfully.

 

Creative adaptation

The students engage in various activities designed to help them learn the new material and use it spontaneously. Activities particularly recommended for this phase include singing, dancing, dramatization and games. The important thing is hat the activities are varied and do not allow the students to focus on the form of the linguistic message, just the communicative intent.

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

 

Teacher will find different situation and different types of students in learning. Therefore, teacher should be creative and smart in choosing and using different types of methods in teaching different skill of language. Teacher can use Suggestopedia as teaching method in their teaching. Using Suggestopedia is very interesting but challenging to do. It can be seen from some considerations. In one side it has some benefits, but on the other side it also has some weaknesses. In addition, the key factors of effective teaching are not the approaches and methods in language teaching themselves but the teacher’s deliberate selection of different approaches and methods and the devoted practice of putting theories into real teaching activities in a corresponding social-cultural context. It is a fact that no approach or method is perfect. However, there is no end for teacher to seek the perfection of the approaches and methods in language teaching. The language teaching method known as Suggestopedia provides some valuable insights into the power of cognition and creates techniques that make students feel comfortable, relaxed and suggestible to the material being learned.

 

 

 

 

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